Who are the First Class Citizen of Bangladesh?

Who are the First Class Citizen of Bangladesh?

Who are the First Class Citizen of Bangladesh?

Citizenship is an important concept that defines an individual’s status and relationship with a country. It is a legal bond between a person and the state that grants certain rights and privileges while also imposing certain responsibilities and duties. In Bangladesh, citizenship is primarily governed by the Constitution of Bangladesh, which outlines the legal framework for citizenship and sets out the rules and procedures for acquiring and retaining citizenship.

This article will provide an overview of citizenship in Bangladesh and explore the concept of first-class citizenship, who are considered first-class citizens, and the socio-economic, political, religious, and gender factors that influence first-class citizenship.

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The Concept of First-Class Citizenship

The concept of first-class citizenship refers to the idea that some citizens may have more rights and privileges than others, based on certain factors such as their socio-economic status, race, ethnicity, or religion. This concept is often associated with systems of discrimination and inequality, where certain groups are marginalized or excluded from full participation in society.

In Bangladesh, the Constitution guarantees equal rights and protections to all citizens, regardless of their background or status. However, in practice, there have been instances of discrimination and marginalization of certain groups, such as the indigenous peoples, women, and religious minorities.

Efforts have been made to address these issues and promote more inclusive policies and practices. For instance, the government has established affirmative action programs to promote the participation of women and minority groups in political processes and public life. Additionally, there have been initiatives to address the economic and social disparities between different regions of the country.

Despite these efforts, challenges remain in ensuring that all citizens in Bangladesh are able to fully exercise their rights and participate in the development of the country. Continued efforts towards greater inclusivity, social justice, and equality will be necessary to address these challenges and promote a more just and equitable society.

 

Who are Considered First-Class Citizens in Bangladesh?

In Bangladesh, all citizens are considered equal under the law and are entitled to the same rights and protections, regardless of their socio-economic status, race, ethnicity, or religion. Therefore, there is no specific group of people who are considered “first-class citizens” in Bangladesh.

However, it is important to note that in practice, certain groups of people may face discrimination or marginalization, which can affect their ability to fully participate in society and access opportunities. For instance, women, religious minorities, and indigenous peoples have often been marginalized and faced discrimination in various aspects of life in Bangladesh.

Efforts have been made to address these issues and promote greater inclusivity and equality. The government has established affirmative action programs to promote the participation of women and minority groups in political processes and public life. Additionally, there have been initiatives to address the economic and social disparities between different regions of the country.

 

The Socio-economic Factors that Determine First-Class Citizenship

In Bangladesh, there is no official categorization of citizens as first or second class based on socio-economic factors. However, it is true that socio-economic factors play a significant role in shaping a citizen’s quality of life, opportunities, and access to resources.

Factors that are often associated with first-class citizenship in Bangladesh may include:

  1. Wealth and income: Citizens who are financially well-off tend to have greater access to education, healthcare, and other basic services.
  2. Education: Citizens who have higher levels of education may have better job opportunities and greater access to social and economic resources.
  3. Location: Citizens living in urban areas often have greater access to services and job opportunities than those living in rural areas.
  4. Social status: Citizens who belong to higher social classes may have greater social and political influence and be more likely to be involved in decision-making processes.
  5. Religion and ethnicity: Despite constitutional guarantees of equality, religious and ethnic minorities in Bangladesh often face discrimination and are at a disadvantage when it comes to accessing opportunities and resources.

 

Political Power and First-Class Citizenship in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, political power can play a significant role in determining a citizen’s access to resources and opportunities, which can in turn affect their quality of life and status in society. However, it is important to note that political power should not be the sole determinant of first-class citizenship.

Citizens who hold political power, such as elected officials, may have greater access to resources and opportunities. For instance, they may have more influence in decision-making processes and be able to allocate resources to their constituents. Additionally, political power can provide access to networks and connections that can facilitate social and economic advancement.

However, it is important to ensure that political power is used for the benefit of all citizens and not just a select few. Corruption and misuse of power can exacerbate social and economic disparities and undermine the principles of democracy and equality.

Furthermore, political power should not be the only means for citizens to access resources and opportunities. The government should strive to create a level playing field where all citizens, regardless of their political affiliations, have equal access to resources, services, and opportunities. This can be achieved through policies that promote economic and social development, as well as efforts to address systemic discrimination and marginalization.

 

The Influence of Religion on First-Class Citizenship in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, religion plays a significant role in shaping social and political dynamics, and it can have an impact on a citizen’s status and opportunities. However, it is important to recognize that Bangladesh is a secular state, and the Constitution guarantees equal rights and protections to all citizens, regardless of their religion.

Despite these constitutional guarantees, there have been instances of discrimination against religious minorities in Bangladesh. For example, members of the Hindu, Buddhist, and Christian communities have faced discrimination and persecution, including violence and forced displacement. These actions have contributed to social and economic disparities, which can impact a citizen’s access to resources and opportunities.

Furthermore, religion can play a role in political power dynamics in Bangladesh. Political parties and leaders often appeal to religious sentiments to mobilize support, and the influence of religious leaders and institutions can shape political and social discourse.

Efforts have been made to promote greater inclusivity and equality for all citizens, regardless of their religion. For example, the government has established policies and programs to address discrimination and promote the rights of religious minorities. Additionally, civil society organizations and human rights groups have advocated for greater tolerance and acceptance of religious diversity in Bangladesh.

 

The Role of Gender in First-Class Citizenship in Bangladesh

Gender plays a significant role in shaping social and political dynamics in Bangladesh, and it can have an impact on a citizen’s status and opportunities. Historically, women in Bangladesh have faced significant barriers to accessing resources and opportunities, and their participation in political and public life has been limited.

Despite constitutional guarantees of equality, gender-based discrimination remains a pervasive issue in Bangladesh. Women are often excluded from decision-making processes and are underrepresented in political and public life. Additionally, women face significant economic and social barriers, such as limited access to education, healthcare, and job opportunities.

Efforts have been made to address these issues and promote greater gender equality in Bangladesh. The government has established policies and programs to promote women’s participation in politics and public life, such as quotas for women in local government elections. Additionally, civil society organizations and human rights groups have advocated for women’s rights and worked to raise awareness about gender-based discrimination.

 

Discrimination and Marginalization of Non-First-Class Citizens

In Bangladesh, there are various forms of discrimination and marginalization experienced by citizens who are not considered first-class. These groups include ethnic minorities, religious minorities, women, and those living in poverty, among others.

Ethnic minorities, such as the indigenous peoples of Bangladesh, often face discrimination and marginalization in terms of access to resources and opportunities. They are often excluded from decision-making processes and are underrepresented in political and public life. Additionally, their traditional lands and resources are frequently threatened by development projects and natural resource extraction.

Religious minorities, such as Hindus, Buddhists, and Christians, also face discrimination and persecution in Bangladesh. They are often the targets of violence and forced displacement, and their rights and freedoms are frequently restricted.

Women in Bangladesh face significant barriers to accessing resources and opportunities, and their participation in political and public life is limited. They are often excluded from decision-making processes and are subject to gender-based violence and discrimination.

Those living in poverty in Bangladesh also experience significant marginalization, and are often excluded from decision-making processes and access to resources and opportunities. They are also disproportionately affected by natural disasters, which can exacerbate their economic and social vulnerabilities.

Efforts have been made to address these issues and promote greater inclusivity and equality for all citizens in Bangladesh. The government has established policies and programs to address discrimination and promote the rights of marginalized groups, such as affirmative action programs for ethnic minorities and women.

Additionally, civil society organizations and human rights groups have advocated for the rights of marginalized groups and worked to raise awareness about discrimination and marginalization.

 

Challenges to First-Class Citizenship in Bangladesh

There are several challenges to achieving and maintaining first-class citizenship in Bangladesh. Some of these challenges include:

  1. Political instability: Bangladesh has experienced significant political instability over the years, which has had a negative impact on governance and the rule of law. This instability can create an environment where citizens are vulnerable to abuses and discrimination.
  2. Corruption: Corruption is a pervasive issue in Bangladesh and can impact access to resources and opportunities. Citizens who are not well-connected or lack resources may struggle to obtain necessary documents, services, and permits due to corruption.
  3. Limited resources: Bangladesh is a densely populated country with limited resources, and this can create competition for access to resources such as land, water, and jobs. This competition can exacerbate existing social and economic disparities.
  4. Religious and ethnic tensions: Bangladesh has a diverse population, and tensions between different religious and ethnic groups can create a climate of fear and mistrust. These tensions can lead to discrimination and marginalization.
  5. Gender inequality: Despite constitutional guarantees of equality, gender-based discrimination remains a pervasive issue in Bangladesh. Women are often excluded from decision-making processes and are underrepresented in political and public life. This can limit their ability to advocate for their rights and contribute to society.
  6. Limited access to justice: Many citizens in Bangladesh face barriers to accessing justice, such as limited resources and language barriers. This can limit their ability to seek redress for discrimination and other abuses.

Efforts are being made to address these challenges and promote greater inclusivity and equality in Bangladesh. This includes efforts to strengthen governance and the rule of law, reduce corruption, and promote access to resources and opportunities for all citizens.

 

Human Rights and First-Class Citizenship in Bangladesh

Human rights are fundamental to the concept of first-class citizenship in Bangladesh. The Constitution of Bangladesh enshrines a range of human rights, including the right to life, liberty, and security, the right to equality before the law, and the right to freedom of expression, religion, and association.

However, there are concerns about the implementation of these rights in practice. Bangladesh has faced criticism from the international community for its record on human rights, particularly in relation to freedom of expression, assembly, and association. Human rights defenders, journalists, and civil society activists have been subject to harassment, intimidation, and violence for their work.

There are also concerns about the treatment of marginalized groups in Bangladesh, including ethnic minorities, religious minorities, women, and those living in poverty. These groups often face discrimination and marginalization in terms of access to resources and opportunities, and are vulnerable to human rights abuses.

Efforts are being made to address these concerns and promote human rights in Bangladesh. Civil society organizations and human rights defenders are advocating for greater protections for marginalized groups and working to raise awareness about human rights issues. The government has also established human rights institutions, such as the National Human Rights Commission, to promote and protect human rights.

International actors, such as the United Nations and other international organizations, also play a role in promoting human rights in Bangladesh. They provide support and technical assistance to the government and civil society organizations, and monitor the human rights situation in the country.

Overall, the promotion and protection of human rights are essential to achieving first-class citizenship in Bangladesh. Efforts must continue to ensure that all citizens have equal access to their rights and that their human dignity is respected and protected.

 

Empowering Non-First-Class Citizens in Bangladesh

Empowering non-first-class citizens in Bangladesh is critical to promoting greater inclusivity and equality in the country. There are several ways to empower non-first-class citizens, including:

  1. Education: Access to education is essential for promoting equality and empowering non-first-class citizens. Education can help individuals acquire knowledge and skills, and can open up opportunities for employment and upward mobility.
  2. Economic empowerment: Access to economic opportunities, such as jobs, loans, and training programs, can help non-first-class citizens build financial stability and improve their social and economic status.
  3. Political participation: Encouraging non-first-class citizens to participate in the political process can help ensure their voices are heard and their concerns are addressed. This includes promoting greater representation of non-first-class citizens in elected offices and decision-making bodies.
  4. Legal support: Providing legal support and advocacy services can help non-first-class citizens assert their rights and seek redress for discrimination and other abuses.
  5. Awareness-raising: Raising awareness about discrimination and promoting tolerance and acceptance can help break down barriers and foster greater inclusivity.
  6. Support for civil society: Civil society organizations play an important role in promoting the rights of non-first-class citizens. Providing support to these organizations, including funding and technical assistance, can help strengthen their capacity to advocate for change.

 

Promoting Diversity and Inclusivity in Bangladesh

Promoting diversity and inclusivity in Bangladesh is critical for building a cohesive and harmonious society that values and respects all citizens. Here are some ways to promote diversity and inclusivity in Bangladesh:

  1. Education: Education is key to promoting understanding and acceptance of diversity. Incorporating diversity and inclusion into the school curriculum and providing opportunities for students to interact with people from different backgrounds can help promote empathy and understanding.
  2. Cultural exchange programs: Cultural exchange programs can help people from different backgrounds learn about each other’s cultures and build relationships based on mutual respect and understanding.
  3. Celebrating diversity: Celebrating cultural and religious diversity through festivals, events, and other activities can help promote inclusivity and bring people together.
  4. Non-discrimination policies: Enacting non-discrimination policies and laws that protect people from discrimination based on their race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or other characteristics can help promote inclusivity and equality.
  5. Political representation: Promoting greater representation of diverse groups in elected offices and decision-making bodies can help ensure that their voices are heard and their concerns are addressed.
  6. Media representation: The media can play a powerful role in promoting diversity and inclusivity by featuring diverse perspectives and stories that reflect the richness and complexity of society.
  7. Community engagement: Engaging with communities and involving them in decision-making processes can help promote inclusivity and ensure that diverse perspectives are taken into account.

 

Building a Nation of Equal Citizens in Bangladesh

Building a nation of equal citizens in Bangladesh is an important goal for promoting a just and equitable society. Here are some key steps that can be taken to build a nation of equal citizens:

  1. Enact laws and policies that promote equality: Laws and policies that prohibit discrimination based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, and other characteristics are essential for ensuring that all citizens have equal rights and opportunities.
  2. Address socio-economic disparities: Addressing socio-economic disparities, such as poverty, unemployment, and access to education and healthcare, is critical for promoting equality and creating opportunities for all citizens.
  3. Promote diversity and inclusivity: Promoting diversity and inclusivity is essential for building a society that values and respects all citizens, regardless of their background.
  4. Empower marginalized communities: Empowering marginalized communities through education, economic opportunities, political participation, and legal support can help promote equality and ensure that their voices are heard.
  5. Encourage civic engagement: Encouraging civic engagement and participation in the political process can help ensure that all citizens have a say in decisions that affect their lives and their communities.
  6. Strengthen institutions: Strengthening institutions, such as the judiciary, civil service, and law enforcement, is essential for ensuring that laws and policies promoting equality are enforced and that citizens have access to justice.
  7. Foster a culture of respect and tolerance: Fostering a culture of respect and tolerance, through education, media, and community engagement, can help create a society that values diversity and promotes inclusivity.

 

 

The Constitutional Framework of Citizenship in Bangladesh

The Constitution of Bangladesh provides the legal framework for citizenship in the country. According to the Constitution, there are three types of citizenship in Bangladesh:

  1. Citizenship by birth
  2. Citizenship by descent
  3. Citizenship by naturalization

The Constitution also recognizes the concept of dual citizenship, which allows individuals to hold citizenship in more than one country. However, the Government of Bangladesh does not permit dual citizenship and requires citizens to renounce their foreign citizenship if they wish to become a citizen of Bangladesh. Additionally, the Constitution outlines the rights and duties of citizens, including the right to vote and participate in political processes, the duty to pay taxes, and the responsibility to abide by the laws of the country.

 

Birthright Citizenship in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, birthright citizenship is granted to individuals born within the country’s territorial borders on or after 26th March 1971. This means that if a person is born in Bangladesh, they are automatically considered a Bangladeshi citizen, regardless of their parents’ citizenship status.

It is important to note that birthright citizenship does not apply to children born to foreign diplomats or other individuals who are considered to be non-resident in the country. Additionally, children born in Bangladesh to parents who are illegal immigrants or do not have valid documentation may not be eligible for citizenship.

Birthright citizenship is an important aspect of the legal framework for citizenship in Bangladesh, as it ensures that children born in the country are not stateless and have access to the rights and privileges that come with citizenship. However, the government has also been working to strengthen its immigration policies and border control measures to prevent illegal immigration and ensure that citizenship is granted only to those who meet the legal requirements.

 

Naturalization Process for Foreigners in Bangladesh

Foreigners can acquire Bangladeshi citizenship through the process of naturalization. The Citizenship Act of 1951 sets out the rules and procedures for naturalization in Bangladesh.

To be eligible for naturalization, a foreigner must meet the following criteria:

  1. Have resided in Bangladesh for at least five years before applying for citizenship.
  2. Be of good character and not have a criminal record.
  3. Have a basic knowledge of the Bengali language.
  4. Be able to support themselves and their dependents financially.
  5. Have renounced their foreign citizenship or have proof that they will renounce it upon acquiring Bangladeshi citizenship.

The naturalization process involves several steps, including submitting an application to the Ministry of Home Affairs, undergoing background checks and interviews, and taking an oath of allegiance to the country. The process can take several months to complete and may involve additional requirements, such as providing proof of residency, paying fees, and obtaining references.

 

Dual Citizenship in Bangladesh

Although the Constitution of Bangladesh recognizes the concept of dual citizenship, the government of Bangladesh does not permit its citizens to hold dual citizenship.

In order to become a Bangladeshi citizen, an individual is required to renounce any other citizenship they may hold. This is a legal requirement and failure to comply may result in the individual being stripped of their Bangladeshi citizenship.

However, there are certain situations in which an individual may be granted an exception to the rule. For instance, children born to Bangladeshi parents outside the country may be granted dual citizenship until they turn 21 years of age, at which point they must choose one citizenship or the other.

 

The Rights and Duties of Citizens in Bangladesh

Citizens in Bangladesh have both rights and duties that are outlined in the Constitution of the country. These rights and duties include:

Rights of Citizens:

  1. Right to equality before the law.
  2. Right to freedom of speech and expression.
  3. Right to freedom of religion.
  4. Right to life, liberty, and security of person.
  5. Right to participate in political processes and vote in elections.
  6. Right to education, health care, and social security.

Duties of Citizens:

  1. Duty to respect the Constitution and abide by the laws of the country.
  2. Duty to pay taxes and contribute to the welfare of the country.
  3. Duty to participate in the defense of the country when necessary.
  4. Duty to protect public property and work for the betterment of society.
  5. Duty to protect the natural environment and promote sustainable development.

Citizenship in Bangladesh is seen as both a privilege and a responsibility. As such, citizens are expected to actively engage in the development and progress of the country, as well as respect and protect the rights of others.

 

Citizenship Act 1951 (Bangladesh)

The Citizenship Act 1951 is a law of Bangladesh that governs the acquisition, renunciation, and loss of citizenship. The Act defines who is considered a citizen of Bangladesh and outlines the rights and responsibilities of citizens.

Under the Citizenship Act 1951, a person can become a citizen of Bangladesh in several ways, including:

  1. By birth: A person born in Bangladesh before or after the establishment of the country is considered a citizen of Bangladesh.
  2. By descent: A person born outside Bangladesh to a Bangladeshi parent is considered a citizen of Bangladesh.
  3. By registration: A person who has been living in Bangladesh for at least five years can apply for citizenship by registration.
  4. By naturalization: A person who has been living in Bangladesh for at least ten years can apply for citizenship by naturalization.

The Citizenship Act also provides for the renunciation and loss of citizenship in certain circumstances, such as when a person voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country or engages in activities that are deemed to be against the interests of Bangladesh.

Overall, the Citizenship Act 1951 is an important piece of legislation that helps to define the rights and responsibilities of citizens in Bangladesh.

 

Bangladesh Citizenship Order, 1972

The Bangladesh Citizenship-Order, 1972 is an amendment to the Citizenship Act of 1951 that was enacted after Bangladesh gained independence from Pakistan in 1971. The order outlines the process for acquiring, renouncing, and losing citizenship in Bangladesh.

The order states that any person who was born in Bangladesh after March 25, 1971, and before the commencement of the Bangladesh Citizenship Order on February 15, 1972, is a citizen of Bangladesh by birth. Additionally, any person who was a citizen of Pakistan immediately before the commencement of the Bangladesh Citizenship Order and has been residing in Bangladesh since then is also considered a citizen of Bangladesh.

The order also provides for citizenship by descent, which can be acquired by a person born outside Bangladesh to a Bangladeshi parent. Citizenship by registration and naturalization are also available under the Bangladesh Citizenship Order.

The order also outlines the circumstances under which citizenship can be renounced or lost. For example, a person can renounce their citizenship if they have acquired the citizenship of another country voluntarily. Citizenship can also be revoked if a person engages in activities that are deemed to be against the interests of Bangladesh.

Overall, the Citizenship Order, 1972 provides a framework for citizenship in Bangladesh and outlines the rights and responsibilities of citizens.

 

First Class Citizen of a Country

A first-class citizen is a term used to describe a person who is afforded full legal rights and privileges in a particular country. This term is often used in contrast to second-class or third-class citizens who may have fewer rights or be subject to discrimination based on their race, religion, gender, ethnicity, or other factors.

First-class citizenship typically includes the right to vote, the right to own property, the right to work and receive an education, and the right to access healthcare and other social services. It also includes protections under the law, such as due process and equal protection.

In some countries, certain groups may be considered second-class or third-class citizens due to their social, economic, or political status. This can include immigrants, refugees, minorities, and other marginalized groups.

Efforts are often made by governments, activists, and international organizations to promote first-class citizenship for all people and to eliminate discrimination and inequality based on race, religion, gender, ethnicity, or other factors.

 

First-class Citizen Example

An example of a first-class citizen would be a citizen of a country who is afforded full legal rights and privileges, without discrimination or limitation based on their race, religion, gender, ethnicity, or other factors.

For instance, in the United States, all citizens are considered first-class citizens with equal rights and protections under the law, regardless of their background or identity. This includes the right to vote, the right to work and receive an education, and the right to access healthcare and other social services. It also includes protections under the law, such as due process and equal protection.

 

How to Get Bangladesh Citizenship?

There are several ways to acquire Bangladesh citizenship, including:

  1. Citizenship by Birth: A person born in Bangladesh is considered a citizen of Bangladesh.
  2. Citizenship by Descent: A person born outside Bangladesh to a Bangladeshi parent is eligible to apply for Bangladeshi citizenship.
  3. Citizenship by Naturalization: A foreign national who has resided in Bangladesh for at least five years is eligible to apply for Bangladeshi citizenship through naturalization. However, the government may also waive the residency requirement in certain cases, such as for persons of Bangladeshi origin or for those who have made significant contributions to Bangladesh.
  4. Citizenship by Marriage: A foreign national who is married to a Bangladeshi citizen may be eligible to apply for citizenship through marriage. However, the person must have resided in Bangladesh for at least three years, and the marriage must be legally recognized in Bangladesh.

To apply for Bangladeshi citizenship, the applicant must submit an application to the appropriate government authority, along with supporting documents and fees. The application process can be complex, and it is recommended that applicants seek legal advice or assistance to ensure that they meet all the eligibility requirements and complete the application correctly.

 

Does Bangladesh allow 3 citizenships?

No, Bangladesh does not generally allow its citizens to hold multiple or triple citizenships. The country follows the principle of single citizenship, which means that an individual can only hold one citizenship at a time.

In fact, the Bangladesh Citizenship Act of 1951 states that any Bangladeshi citizen who acquires citizenship of any other country automatically loses their Bangladeshi citizenship. Similarly, any foreign citizen who acquires Bangladeshi citizenship must renounce their previous citizenship.

However, there are some exceptions to this rule. For instance, Bangladesh allows dual citizenship in certain cases, such as for children born to Bangladeshi parents in a foreign country, or for individuals who hold dual citizenship by birth, marriage, or naturalization.

 

What is the Tenure of Office Act?

The Tenure of Office Act was a United States federal law passed by Congress in 1867 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act was designed to limit the power of the president to remove certain officeholders without the approval of the Senate.

Specifically, the Tenure of Office Act required Senate approval for the removal of any government official who had been appointed with the advice and consent of the Senate. This included members of the president’s Cabinet and other high-ranking officials.

The act was passed as a response to President Johnson’s attempts to remove Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from office without the approval of the Senate. Johnson argued that he had the authority to remove officials without Senate approval, but Congress disagreed and passed the Tenure of Office Act to limit his power.

The act was controversial from the beginning, and it was challenged in court by Johnson and his supporters. In 1868, the Senate voted to impeach Johnson for violating the act and other alleged offenses, but he was acquitted by the Senate and remained in office until the end of his term.

The Tenure of Office Act was repealed in 1887, but it had a lasting impact on the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches of the U.S. government. It helped to establish the principle that the president can only remove officials with the approval of the Senate, a principle that is still in place today in many cases.

 

The Republic of Bangladesh

The Republic of Bangladesh, commonly known as Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is located on the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by India to the north, west, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast. The Bay of Bengal lies to the south of Bangladesh.

With a population of over 164 million people, Bangladesh is the eighth most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Dhaka.

Bangladesh gained its independence from Pakistan in 1971 after a nine-month war. The country is known for its lush green landscape, natural beauty, and rich culture. Bengali is the official language of Bangladesh, and Islam is the predominant religion, with more than 90% of the population being Muslim.

Bangladesh is a developing country with a rapidly growing economy, driven by its textile and garment industry. The country has made significant progress in poverty reduction and social development in recent years, although challenges remain in areas such as infrastructure, education, and healthcare. The government of Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy, with a President serving as the head of state and a Prime Minister as the head of government.

 

Functioning Immediately Before the Commencement of Election Commission

“Functioning immediately before the commencement of Election Commission” refers to the situation when the previous Election Commission has completed its term or resigned, and the new Election Commission has not yet assumed office. During this period, the administration and management of the election process are usually carried out by the Chief Election Commissioner or an acting Chief Election Commissioner, along with the other members of the Election Commission who are still in office.

The Election Commission is an independent constitutional body responsible for managing the elections of the country. In many countries, including Bangladesh, the Election Commission is a temporary body that is established for the purpose of conducting elections. The Commission is usually composed of a Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners, who are appointed by the President or the head of state.

When a new Election Commission is appointed, it takes over the responsibilities and powers of the previous Commission, and assumes the task of conducting free and fair elections. However, in the period between the completion of the previous Commission’s term and the appointment of the new Commission, the administration and management of the election process is carried out by the Chief Election Commissioner or an acting Chief Election Commissioner.

During this period, the Commission usually makes arrangements for the upcoming election, including the preparation of voter lists, the training of election officials, and the establishment of polling stations.

 

 

Conclusion: The Path Towards a More Inclusive Society in Bangladesh.

In conclusion, creating a more inclusive society in Bangladesh requires a sustained and multi-faceted effort that involves all segments of society. It requires a commitment to promoting equality, respect, and tolerance for all citizens, regardless of their background. The constitutional framework of citizenship in Bangladesh provides the legal foundation for promoting equality and protecting the rights of all citizens.

However, socio-economic factors, political power, religion, and gender continue to influence first-class citizenship and marginalize non-first-class citizens. To overcome these challenges, promoting diversity and inclusivity, empowering marginalized communities, and strengthening institutions are critical steps towards building a nation of equal citizens. By taking these steps, Bangladesh can build a more just, equitable, and prosperous society where all citizens can thrive and contribute to the nation’s development.

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